Where to put JSON Web Tokens in 2019

Luc engelenPosted by Luc Engelen on 26-8-2019

A few years ago, I gave a talk about JSON Web Tokens (JWTs) during a Meetup for Java enthusiasts in Eindhoven. Triggered by a talk about JWTs I attended recently, I decided to dust of my presentation and the demo applications I made back then to see whether they still hold up. It turns out that life is a little harder in 2019 than it was in 2016, at least as far as security and JWTs are concerned. Before we go into the details of this opinion, we should first discuss the basics.

JSON Web Tokens

Essentially, a JSON Web Token is something that a server application would give to a client application, which the client would then use to authenticate itself with the server when doing requests. A JSON Web Token looks something like this:


If you look closely, you’ll see that it consists of three base64-encoded strings, joined by periods. If you decode the ones above, you end up with the following:

  "alg": "HS512"
  "exp": 1476290149,
  base64UrlEncode(header) + "." +

The first part is the header, the second is the payload, and the third is the signature. Anyone that gets their hands on this token can decode the strings. (Execute atob("eyJhbGciOiJIUzUxMiJ9") in the console of your browser if you want to see for yourself.) This means that anyone who gets their hands on the token can use the encoded information. Because only the server knows the secret that was used to compute the signature from the header and body, however, only the server can check the validity of a token by recomputing its expected signature and comparing it with the actual signature. Once the server has determined that a given JWT is valid, it knows that it issued the token itself, and that the data in the body can be trusted.

The header specifies which algorithm was used to compute the signature. In this case, that’s the HMAC-SHA512 algorithm.

The payload can contain any number of claims. In this example, the standard claims exp and sub are used. The claim exp (short for “expiration time”) specifies when the token expires. The claim sub (short for “subject”) specifies the subject of the token, usually something like a user of your app, denoted by an identifier. There are a number of other standard claims, and you’re free to add claims of your own.

A trip down memory lane

When I first read about JWTs, I was still used to working in an environment where deployments lead to downtime and were something that you’d do very early in the morning, so that they would impact as little end users as possible. Because they had to take place early in the morning, they didn’t occur very frequently. As a consequence, multiple features where collected and released together, and deployments automatically became stressful.

The back-end applications I worked on at that time maintained sessions for logged in users. If one of the servers went down, the users whose sessions were stored on that server would lose their session. In situations like that, you can’t just release a bug fix in the middle of the day, because you’d potentially log out part of your users.

First and foremost, I saw JWTs as a solution to this problem. (There are other, potentially better, solutions to this problem, but let’s ignore those for the time being.) Two or more instances of the same back-end application could sit behind a load balancer and issue JWTs to clients. All of these instances would be able to validate JWTs issued by any one of them. The body of each JWT could contain the information that would normally be stored in a session, such as the identifier of the currently logged-in user. If one of the instance would go down (during a deployment, for example) the load balancer would just route requests to the remaining instance(s) and clients wouldn’t notice anything.

I was convinced that JWTs could solve one of my problems, but I wasn’t sure how clients and servers should exchange them. Should they be sent along with requests in a header or should they be kept in a cookie? In the case of communication between back-end applications, the answer is clear. It’s much easier to follow conventions and put them in a header, and there’s no benefit to putting them in cookies instead. In the case of communication between client applications running in a browser and back-end applications, the answer is less clear. I remember frantically Googling for best practices while preparing for my presentation and being confronted with all sorts of contradictory claims and advice. Before we can discuss the conclusion I reached back then, we need to take a detour.


The term cross-site request forgery (CSRF) is used for the situation where someone else’s web application secretly lets its visitors perform actions with your web application due to cookies still present from previous visits.

The following example (a modified version of one provided by OWASP) shows a form that tricks unsuspecting users into sending 10.000 euro (?) to my bank account at bank.com:

<form action="http://bank.com/transfer.do" method="POST">
  <input type="hidden" name="account" value="LUC"/>
  <input type="hidden" name="amount" value="100000"/>
  <input type="submit" value="View my pictures"/>

The term cross-site scripting (XSS) is used for the situation where someone is able to have their scripts executed as part of your web application.

The following example (directly stolen from OWASP without any extra effort) shows part of a JSP template that allows anyone to execute code on the corresponding web page:

<% String eid = request.getParameter("eid"); %>
	Employee ID: <%= eid %>

Imagine the nightmares you’ll have after clicking http://example.com/employee.jsp?eid=alert%28%22you%20have%20been%20p0wned%22%29…

If you put your JWTs in a cookie, you need to take precautions to combat CSRF. If you use secure, HTTP-only cookies, you don’t need to worry about XSS, however, because scripts don’t have access to the content of such cookies. There’s no way someone can abuse XSS and take your JWT to impersonate you.

If you put your JWTs in a header, you don’t need to worry about CSRF. You do need to worry about XSS, however. If someone can abuse XSS to steal your JWT, this person is able to impersonate you.

In my 2016 presentation, I stated that “defense against CSRF is straightforward and durable.” This statement was based on advice offered by the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) at that time. Years later, defense against CSRF is still durable, but a little less straightforward. We’ll come back to that in a minute.

XSS, on the other hand, is something you need to constantly keep in mind. Each template you add could open up possibilities for XSS. The same holds for all those NPM packages you add to your front-end project, either directly or indirectly.

My conclusion from this is that JWTs belong in a secure, HTTP-only cookie, and should be used in combination with preventive measures against CSRF.

Seeing is believing

Because the proof of the pudding is in the eating, I wrote a simple front-end app and two back-end apps that demonstrate a session-based and JWT-based approach to authentication: https://github.com/ljpengelen/java-meetup-jwt

With a simple docker-compose command, you can start three instances of either of the two back ends, a database, and an instance of nginx that serves the front end and acts as load balancer. You can open the front end in your browser, create an account, log in, and then stop some of the back-end instances with docker stop.

In the case of the JWT-based back end, it doesn’t matter which two instances you stop. In the case of the session-based back end, stopping the instance your connected to will terminate your session.

Measures against CSRF

The OWASP has a cheat sheet about measures against CSRF. The applications mentioned above use two of those measures.

First, they combat CSRF by checking the Origin and Referer headers. If the value of none of these headers match the expected value for a given request, the request is denied.

Second, each response returned by the back end contains a secure random token in two locations. One is sent in a header, where it can be read by the front end. The other is stored in the session (in case of the session-based back end) or in yet another secure, HTTP-only cookie (in case of the JWT-based back end) and is only accessible for the back end. These tokens are generated by a cryptographically secure random-number generator. The front-end application reads the token in the header of each response and passes it on with the next request. For each request to a protected endpoint, the back end checks whether the two tokens match. If they match, the request is granted. Otherwise, it’s denied.

Keeping track of the CSRF tokens in the front end is not completely straightforward. It takes a little effort to keep track of the latest token value and forward it with each request, but that’s an acceptable price to pay if you ask me.

For the JWT-based back end, both measures above come from the section of the OWASP cheat sheet describing measures for defense in depth. The second measure is known as the double-submit cookie technique. To mitigate the known issues of this technique, the CSRF token is stored in a JWT. Additionally, the account identifier is included in this JWT as well for logged-in users. Storing the CSRF token in a JWT makes it possible for the back-end application to verify that it produced the token itself. Combining the CSRF token with an account identifier makes it impossible for attackers to reuse a token for another user, even they were able to replace cookies.

Lifespan of a JWT

Think about the following for a second: What happens to already issued JWTs when you change your credentials? What happens to already issued JWTs when you delete your account? In both scenarios, existing JWTs will remain valid. Without additional measures, JWTs remain valid until they expire or until the secret on the server is changed. If someone gets their hands on a token, it can be abused until it expires. If you want to invalidate a single token by changing the secret on the server, you invalidate all tokens.

When should a JWT expire? On one hand, they should expire as soon as possible, to prevent misuse for long periods. On the other hand, they should expire as late as possible, so that users don’t have to re-authenticate all the time.

In practice, two types of tokens are used together, to achieve the best of both worlds. A short-lived access token is used for authentication per request. A long-lived refresh token is used to generate new access token when needed.

Each time the refresh token is used to obtain a new access token, some additional checks could be made to enhance security. The refresh token can be used in combination with a blacklist, for example, to invalidate tokens that were issued for a particular user before a given point in time.

What kind of abuse is this protecting you from?

Because the JWTs are stored in secure, HTTP-only cookies, it is implausible that someone would be able to access the JWTs themselves. An attacker would, for example, need access to a victim’s computer to read the values of these cookies. The blacklist mentioned above could be used to invalidate JWTs comprised like this. However, if someone is able to access cookies directly from your computer, you have bigger problems to worry about that lie beyond the responsibility of an app developer. Moreover, there’s no reasonable defense against someone willing to turn your life into a Quentin Tarantino movie to access your data or credentials.

Other scenarios in which an attacker would be able to read the values of the JWTs would be when the attacker is able to intercept traffic between client and server or when an attacker would have access to the server. In such scenarios, all that can be done is patch up the security holes and change the secret key used to sign JWTs. The latter is the easiest way of invalidating all JWTs that have been issued before. Protection against these types of attacks cannot be implemented on the application level.

In short, your JWTs are reasonably safe from harm in their cookies. More realistically, however, it could happen that you inadvertently introduce an XSS vulnerability in your app. This could enable an attacker to access the value of the CSRF token, and use it in a CSRF attack. Also in this scenario, all you can do is change the secret to invalidate all tokens after patching the vulnerability.


I am not a security expert, and I must stress that you shouldn’t mistake my advice for the absolute truth on this subject. Instead, I hope this post allows you to follow my reasoning and helps you make informed decisions when you have to choose between different forms of authentication.

I’m well aware that the contradictory advice I encountered years ago is still out there, and that most people put their JWTs in a header. I guess those people are more scared of CSRF and that I’m more afraid of XSS.


Right after this blog post got published, my colleague Luk van den Borne shared a post about securing cookies with cookie prefixes. Coincidentally, that post describes a way to patch one of the security holes in the JWT-based back end. This back end is vulnerable for an attack called login CSRF, which is when an attacker is able to make users log in using the attacker’s account. This attack is possible when an attacker has access to an insecure subdomain of the domain that hosts your app. Attackers can use this insecure subdomain to set an arbitrary value for the cookie holding the CSRF token. This attack is only possible for the API call that is used to log in, because the CSRF token is tied to the user’s account identifier after logging in.

Simply adding the prefix __Host- to the name of the cookie that holds the CSRF token triggers browser behavior that mitigates this type of attack, at least for users of Chrome and Firefox.

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